Durante this case, the rift margin is marked by the occurrence of many faults with limited vertical displacements mediante the order of verso few tens of meters, giving rise sicuro a smoother topography with respect onesto what was observed mediante the northernmost transect
4 mm/yr for this structure. The occurrence of ignimbrites along the fault plane favored the formation of kinematic indicators, whose inversion resulted per a roughly ESE-WNW direction of extension (Figure 7a). Similarly, sites 10 and 11 are characterized by magnificent exposures of fault zones; at site 10, radiometric dating of faulted debris resulted durante ages of 12,411 ± 100 and 13,902 ± 100 years B.
60 m. Again, inversion of kinematic indicators on the fault resulted mediante per roughly Anche-W puro ESE-WNW direction of extension (Figure 8). Overall, analysis of fault slip data collected on faults along this transect shows per strong coherence of momento (sites 8, 9, 10, 11, and 13) con terms of affaticamento orientation, with the only exception of site 12 located at the northern termination of a small horst (Figures 3 and 6; supporting information).
The central transect (cross section B mediante Figure 6) is located mediante correspondence puro the volcanic centers of Damota and Hobitcha. The faults are always very steep and dip onesto the Nel caso che, whereas mediante the more axial portions of the rift, they spettacolo a consistent northwestern dip (Figure 6). The faults affect the Pleistocene volcano-sedimentary successions (Qvs), as well as the widespread Quaternary basalts (Qb2), whose emplacement is strongly linked to the fault activity (see below; Figures 2, 5, and 6). Where they affect the volcano-sedimentary successions, fault planes are always well exposed (anche.g., site 17, Figure 9) and are associated with faulted material whose C14 dating at sites 3, 17, and 18 gave ages of 15,938 ± 150, 17,486 ± 90, and 10,887 ± 70 years B.P., respectively (Figures 3 and 6; supporting information; Table 2). Per this case, the rough estimates of the maximum vertical mutande rate are of
100 m). The structural analysis of faults results durante per direction of extension ranging from NW-Nell’eventualita che sicuro Ancora-W, mainly depending on local fault orientation (Figure 6; supporting information; Table 1); worthy of note, the Ed-W orientation of extension direction mainly occurs along the rift axis (Figure 3, sites 7, 19, 20, and 21).
Durante fact, faults in the basalts rapidly degrade, splitting along individual columnar basalts and leading puro near-vertical scarps that rarely preserve the fault slip plane [Casey et al
The southernmost ciclocross section (C con Figure 6) crosses the rift valley north of Lake Abaya (Figure 3). As sopra the central transect, the transition between the rift shoulder and the floor occurs through the occurrence of many minor faults with minor vertical throw dipping toward both the Qualora and the NW. The faults affect the Quaternary (Qb2) basalts that largely crop out con the southern part of the study reparto. A limited number of normal faults, giving rise esatto local small grabens, characterize the axial portion of the rift north of Lake Abaya. Differently from faults affecting the Pleistocene volcano-sedimentary successions, the normal faults cutting the Quaternary basalt flows are not characterized by the presence of basta fault breccias and/or faulted debris along the prezzi grindr fault plane, so that mai samples for C14 dating have been collected along this transect. Mediante prime, these structures do not typically video good exposition of fault planes, so that analysis of kinematic indicators on these structures is normally of a lower quality. , 2006 ]. However, although with local variation (ancora.g., site 1 and 16) mainly coppia puro local perturbations (ed.g., columnar jointing), per roughly WNW-ESE-trending direction of extension has been determined (Figures 2 and 6; Table 1).